生物医学工程学杂志

生物医学工程学杂志

基于有限元模型的不同年龄儿童胸部碰撞损伤研究

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基于已验证有效的 3 岁组和 6 岁组儿童乘员胸腹部有限元模型,本文重构了儿童尸体胸部撞击试验。通过合理设计有限元仿真实验方案,探讨了撞锤大小、胸部组织材料参数和胸部解剖学结构特征参数等因素对 3 岁、6 岁两组儿童胸部碰撞响应的影响。研究结果表明,针对不同大小的撞锤冲击时,3 岁组儿童胸部接触力峰值变化量远大于 6 岁组,对撞锤改变的响应更敏感;而针对胸部组织材料参数的不同,由于本研究中 3 岁组和 6 岁组儿童胸部组织材料参数差异较小,其对胸部损伤响应的影响不明显;针对胸部解剖学结构特征参数而言,3 岁组和 6 岁组儿童胸部因内脏大小、位置等几何解剖学结构的不同,导致碰撞时肋骨变形对内脏挤压位置和挤压程度不同,从而其胸部损伤有明显不同。因此通过本文的研究结果可以得出以下结论,根据儿童解剖学结构特征构建高生物仿真度的有限元模型对研究其胸部损伤机理具有重要意义。

The pediatric cadaver impact experiments were reconstructed using the validated finite element(FE) models of the 3-year-old and 6-year-old children. The effect of parameters, such as hammer size, material parameters and thorax anatomical structure characteristics, on the impact mechanical responses of 3-year-old and 6-year-old pediatric thorax was discussed by designing reasonable finite element simulation experiments. The research results showed that the variation of thorax contact peak force for 3-year-old group was far larger than that of 6-year-old group when the child was impacted by hammers with different size, which meant that 3-year-old child was more sensitive to hammer size. The mechanical properties of thoracic organs had little influence on the thorax injury because of the small difference between 3-year-old and 6-year-old child in this research. During the impact, rib deformation led to different impact location and deformation of internal organs because the 3-year-old and 6-year-old children had different geometrical anatomical structures, such as different size of internal organs. Therefore, the injury of internal organs in the two groups was obviously different. It is of great significance to develop children finite element models with high biofidelity according to its real anatomical structures.

关键词: 儿童胸腹部有限元模型; 胸部材料参数; 解剖学特征; 碰撞仿真; 胸部损伤

Key words: pediatric thorax and abdomen finite element model; mechanical properties of thorax organs; geometrical anatomical characteristics; impact simulation; thorax injury

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